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Thursday, March 26, 2015

Kvinner elsker babyer

I dag ble jeg virkelig klar over hvor store kjønnsforskjellene er. Mens kona handlet satt jeg på en benk på CC med veslejenta, og du verden hvilken oppmerksomhet hun påkalte, vel og merke fra halvparten av de som gikk forbi, og denne halvparten bestod utelukkende av kvinner i alle aldre.

90 prosent av kvinnene som passerte oss klarte ikke å unngå å se på veslejenta, det var som om blikket ble dratt mot henne, og mange brøt ut i store smil. Andre ble helt salige og drømmende i blikket av å se ei lita babyjente.

Mens for mennene som passerte var veslejenta som luft, de hadde ingen interesse av henne, ikke en eneste enset henne et blikk. Dette vil nok endres om 18 år.

Det er helt klart at kvinner har en annen dragning mot barn enn menn, og dette er biologisk. Egentlig har ikke kvinner noen interesse for menn overhodet, de ser menn kun som et nødvendig onde for å få det etterlengtede barnet, og evt. som en praktisk ting som forsørger og beskytter.

Så dette ble dagens studium i menneskelig atferdsbiologi. Konklusjonen er at Terje Bongard har rett, kvinner elsker barna sine mer enn menn. Dette fordi de har en slik grunnleggende lengsel etter og dragning mot barn.

Min lille datter varmet mange kvinnehjerter på CC i dag.

Jeg og dattera mi satt på benken ved rulletrappa mens kona var ute og handlet. Å observere reaksjonene til de kvinnelige forbipasserende var forbausende, blikkene deres ble dratt mot babyen min som til en magnet. Noen brast ut i store gledessmil over hele fjeset. Andre ble salige i blikket, som om de ble satt i transe.

Mens ikke en eneste mann enset henne overhodet. Kjønnsforskjellene er mildest talt enorme.

Vil forresten benytte anledningen til å understreke at CC Gjøvik, som andre kjøpesentre, er et motbydelig privatisert kvasiurbant miljø. Selv ble jeg svært klar over dette en gang jeg gikk omkring og fotograferte og ble stoppet av ei vakt, som var på nippet til å legge meg i bakken som om jeg var en terrorist. Han forlangte å få se gjennom bildene mine, og spurte og grov.

Slik er det å bidra til allmenningheten, for mitt vedkommende gjennom Wikimedia Commons. Klart at CC må dokumenteres! At det er privat eiendom angår meg ikke. Den private eiendomsretten har antatt sinnsvake proporsjoner i vår tid. Dette for å drepe den siste rest av allmenningene.

"De eier maten vår og ødelegger byene våre"

Ett år siden GRENDEKLYNGA ble lansert

I dag er det ett år siden jeg lanserte grendeklynga som svaret på bygdenorges utfordringer. Allikevel står det ene kommunestyret etter det andre fram i Oppland Arbeiderblad og lanserer byggefelt med suburbane eneboliger på, som den ultimate drømmen om det gode liv på landet. Det gjør meg meget trist å se at mitt innlegg i KOTE har fått så lite gjennomslag, og at man holder fast på de utdaterte visjonene til Le Corbusier og General Motors fra begynnelsen av det forrige hundreåret.
The cities will be part of the country; I shall live 30 miles from my office in one direction, under a pine tree; my secretary will live 30 miles away from it too, in the other direction, under another pine tree. We shall both have our own car. We shall use up tires, wear out road surfaces and gears, consume oil and gasoline. All of which will necessitate a great deal of work … enough for all. - Le Corbusier, 1935
La det være helt klart, den suburbane eneboligen har særdeles lite med livskvalitet å gjøre, og absolutt ingenting med det gode liv på landet!

Jeg vil repetere fem punkter som beskriver suburbia, av Salingaros:

  • People buy into the utopian dream
  • But suburban sprawl represents a toxic disconnectedness
  • Isolated houses without community
  • Great deception: “suburbia celebrates nature” – no, it violates nature
  • Replaces nature with dead typologies

Ja, dette er hva kommunepolitikerne på Toten og ellers omkring i Oppland, ja landet som helhet, forbinder med "det gode liv på landet". Selv ett år etter at GRENDEKLYNGA ble lansert i arkitekturmagasinet KOTE!

Jeg vil derfor be alle lesere av denne bloggen om å spre min idè og min artikkel i Magasinet KOTE utover det ganske land. For det er GRENDEKLYNGA som er modellen for framtida og levende bygder!

GRENDEKLYNGA – EN MODELL FOR FRAMTIDA?

OVERdevelopment, OVERpopulation, OVERshoot

Homepage of the book.

Essay about the book.

The biologist Jared Diamond published in 2005 the book Collapse: How societies choose to fail or survive. He summarizes how native populations and cultures that have ‘advanced’ in technology, have, without exception, expanded above carrying boundaries, destroying their own foundation for life. And then they collapsed. There are no historical examples of native populations who cared about anything else than short sighted gain. Human cultures have in the past only been restricted by technological limitations in using up resources, not by their nobility. There is a clear boundary between those cultures who remained at a hunter/gatherer level, in which some still exist, and cultures which developed technology or grew their populations to change the ecosystems they depended upon. All the latter-mentioned cultures are gone, except for the one we live in today. The world’s earlier cultures, like ours today, are a history of how people used all available means to fight for, exploit and deplete the ecosystems they lived in. Regardless of culture, people of all eras struggled and fought for food, place, benefits and values that are connected to the two powers of selection: To get what’s needed to secure nurturing for children and family (natural selection), and to become an attractive partner (sexual selection).  — Det Biologiske Mennesket, by Terje Bongard and Eivin Røskaft, page 239
We are simply repeating the failure of all former civilizations. The main difference is that this time the failure is global. After the rejection of MEDOSS, we have no other choice than collapse.

It will probably neither be a fractal collapse, which was the standard before. According to Gail Tverberg it's more likely it will become like an implosion of Leonardo Sticks.

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

En kjernefysisk fimbulvinter

I dag er det vinter igjen utenfor vinduet. Litt trist etter det fine vårværet vi har hatt. Vårvær var det også etter glasnost, men istedenfor sommer venter nå atomvinteren. Følger fredsprisvinner Obama opp kongressens vedtak, har vi flaks om vi er i live om fem år. Krig mot Russland betyr atomkrig, la det ikke være noen som helst tvil om dette. NATOs generalsekretær Jens Stoltenberg vil garantert være like begeistret for disse fremtidsutsiktene, som han var for bombingen av Libya.
I ett fåfängt försök och misslyckad ansats att hålla USA intakt som den enda supermakten som kan diktera villkoren för världen, har de neokonservativa utan hänsyn och oansvarigt återuppväckt hotet om ett kärnvapenkrig. De neokonservativas dominans över amerikansk utrikespolitik gör det omöjligt att restaurera förtroendet. Washingtons propaganda omöjliggör diplomatiska lösningar och driver situationen mot krig. Eftersom varken Washington eller den rysk/kinesiska alliansen har råd att förlora det slaget, blir kriget nukleärt. Eventuella överlevande döms till nukleär vinter. - Anders Romelsjö
I en atmosfære full av mistillit og dårlig kommunikasjon skal det ikke store misforståelsen til før man trykker på knappen. Både tilliten og kommunikasjonen er langt dårligere i dag enn under den kalde krigen, og den røde telefonen mellom de to lands øverste ledere er stuet vekk. Så det hjelper ikke om selv de galeste fundamentalister ikke ønsker atomkrig, en liten misforståelse og noen sekunder for lite til rådighet, så er ragnarok løs og vi får en kjernefysisk fimbulvinter!

Den røde telefon mellom de to atomsupermaktenes presidenter er frakoblet.

Foto: Diamondmagna

Les artikkelen på Steigan.no:

Kongressen vil ha krig
Mens Europa håper på at våpenhvilen i Ukraina skal holde, har Representantenes hus i USA med stort flertall vedtatt en resolusjon som krever at presidenten ruster Ukraina til krig. Resolusjonsforslaget hadde ikke vært oppe i noen av Kongressens komiteer på forhånd, men ble hastelansert til votering. Ikke en eneste kongressrepresentant tok ordet mot forslaget og det ble vedtatt med 348 mot 48 stemmer. Vedtaket er fullt av usannheter og propaganda, og tjener bare til å øke faren for krig.
Les også:

Det finnes ikke noe som heter «begrenset atomkrig»

Ukraina, med mennesker og nasjoner som brikker i det store sjakkspillet



Se kommentarer til dette innlegget hos VD her.

Oppfordring til et anti-krigs 1. mai


Som en reaksjon på Pål Steigans artikkel Jernbanearbeiderne: Nei til krig mellom NATO og Russland!, har jeg lagt ut følgende oppfordring:
Jeg har sendt melding til Thor Solheim om at hvis det blir paroler mot denne krigen i Gjøvik i år, tar jeg med meg familien og går i 1. mai-tog for første gang. Her må vi la alle politiske skillelinjer vike, og benytte 1. mai for alt det er verdt. Vil be ALLE, uansett bakgrunn og politiske preferanser, støtte opp om dette. ALLE fagforeningsmedlemmer og -ledere, følg jernbanearbeidernes eksempel! Det er ikke sikkert vi får flere muligheter.

1. mai innvarsler vår. Kunne dette også bli en vårløsning mot denne krigen. Hvis ikke kan vi snart befinne oss i mørke kjellere mens radioaktiv snø sakte siger mot bakken utenfor. Her i det kalde nord vil det garantert ikke finnes overlevende etter en atomkrig.

Derfor, kom deg ut og støtt opp om fanene mot kjernefysisk ragnarok!

The Fallacy that Oil Prices Can Rise Arbitrarily High

You are repeating the original fallacy that oil prices can rise arbitrarily high. Civilization would indeed not be endangered if this were true. Critical infrastructure would remain intact and the rich could still get whatever they want. But this is precisely what will not work.

The price of oil is set by the global market. When ordinary consumers are unable to keep up demand at the price needed to supply oil, prices will go down and oil producers will go bankrupt, which is starting to happen already. The rich are powerless to stop this process because there are too few of them and they don't have enough money. By the time only the rich could still theoretically afford oil, there will not be enough critical infrastructure left to have a functioning oil industry at all. It takes a civilization to have an oil industry, and oil needs to supply enough net energy to power this civilization. From a thermodynamic perspective, it is physically impossible to keep extracting oil when you have to invest more energy in its production than you can get out of it (unless another energy source could make up the deficit, in which case oil could still be extracted at an energy loss and used for liquid fuels and feedstock, but we have no such option). Due to the diminishing returns resulting from depletion, we already get too little net energy out of oil to keep the system running for much longer. Physics trumps economics and there is nothing you can do about it. Saying "prices are relative" will not negate the second law of thermodynamics.

It is even worse, because we also rely on the oil industry to provide employment and to fund governments and pensions and all sorts of financial derivatives. Low oil prices will likely lead to so such a chaos that it could bring down the entire system long before it becomes physically impossible to extract more oil. The financial system is the operating system of the economy and just as essential as the hardware, so a financial crisis could bring down the entire system all by itself. All it takes is loss of confidence that debts can be repaid, resulting in a credit crunch and broken supply lines.

Tuesday, March 24, 2015

WHAT IS AN UNFOLDING?

By Christopher Alexander. Original post here.
The elements of a generative code are “unfoldings”. Whether in the evolution of a neighborhood or in the evolution of a building, each unfolding is an operation which gets you from one stage or moment of development (whether conceptual or physical), to the next moment of development. The full sequence of unfoldings gets you all the way from the first stages of conception when a project is no more than a gleam in somebody’s eye, all the way to the final stages of physical, built completion and use.
Unfoldings slightly resemble patterns, in that they are nuggets of information, which help you shape some part or aspect of the environment. However, unfoldings are vastly different from patterns in the way they work, and it is these differences which give them their power and effectiveness.
Each unfolding has three key features which define its operation and its effect.
  1. Unlike a pattern, which is a static configuration, an unfolding is dynamic. It acts to generate form.
  2. Unlike a pattern, an unfolding arises from the whole, is shaped by the whole, and acts upon the whole
  3. An unfolding is by its nature personal, and requires human input and human feeling from the people doing the work, as an essential part of its contribution to the formation of the environment.

1. Unlike a pattern, which is a static configuration that merely serves as a model, an unfolding is dynamic. It acts to generate form.

1.1 An unfolding is a process which gets you from one stage or moment of development to the next moment of development, in the evolution of a neighborhood or in the evolution of a building.
1.2 It is helpful to compare such unfoldings with similar phenomena in plant morphogenesis and embryology. Both in the angiosperm shown below, and in the embryo shown beneath it, you can picture each unfolding as a limited and brief process which in the first one gradually shapes the seed, and in the second, takes the blur that is the beginning of a hand in the embryo, to the next stage of development where the hand gets its first outline fingers.

Diagram of a typical angiosperm (flowering plant) unfolding

Photographs of a human embryo unfolding

Two photographs, three days apart, of a mouse foot unfolding
1.3 An unfolding is a process that operates on the whole. But unfoldings may be very short in duration, or longer. In the angiosperm example, the unfolding that happens between one frame and the next is relatively short in duration, and accomplishes a modest task. The entire sequence of seven pictures for the angiosperm may also be viewed as one unfolding packet, composed of the seven smaller unfoldings happening in a coordinated sequence.
1.4 An unfolding is a process that operates on the whole. But unfoldings may be very short in duration, or longer. In the angiosperm example, the unfolding that happens between one frame and the next is relatively short in duration, and accomplishes a modest task. The entire sequence of seven pictures for the angiosperm may also be viewed as one unfolding packet, composed of the seven smaller unfoldings happening in a coordinated sequence.
1.5 Such unfoldings are the key process elements of every generative code. Only unfoldings can gradually, and one by one, cause the creation of a living neighborhood. Their attention to the whole, and their capacity to generate minute and careful adaptation, step by step, results in the infinite variety and beautiful fitness that we see throughout nature, and in the work of countless thousands of traditional builders in different cultures.
1.6 In providing this first sketch of a library on this website, we are doing our best to pass on, and make public, a first cache of the source material from which a neighborhood can actually be made living: and above all, in a form that can be generated by the neighborhood people themselves, if given the proper framework.
1.7 Pattern Languages. For those who have studied pattern languages, it may be useful to make a brief comparison of patterns and unfoldings.
Originally, the patterns in A Pattern Language were thought of as unfoldings. The languages of traditional society did work like that — by unfolding building designs. Pattern languages were intended to be similar. However, as my colleagues and I worked on the pattern language throughout the sixties and early seventies, the functional content of the patterns, though humane and sensible, was at that time profoundly inconsistent with the modern way of looking at architecture that was then fashionable: in short, modern architecture, for all its talk about functionalism, was not focused on function at all. Indeed modern architecture was studiously avoiding it. In order to make the (then) radical nature of the true functionalism of the pattern language as persuasive as possible, and in order to communicate with people who had lost sight of real function, we spent more and more of our energy writing functional background, to make it clear that these functional things and their spatial correlates raised in the patterns really were true.
As a result, the crucial and central importance of unfolding as the main attribute of patterns became less visible, was obscured, and even our own work on that aspect had temporarily to slow down.
So, it is not surprising that the unfoldings presented here do, in terms of functional content and their overall network relations to one another, resemble the patterns in a pattern language. But the inner content of the unfoldings is different, and it goes back to the intention that originally inspired the pattern language in the first place.
1.8 The actual content of an unfolding, is entirely different from the content of a pattern.
pattern describes a static configuration that should be made present in a neighborhood, and gives no information, really, about how to make this pattern appear within an ongoing process of design or construction. As a result the design process, which dominates the result of any neighborhood and architectural planning, has little power to be profoundly affected by the pattern.
An unfolding is primarily dynamic. It describes “how to get there from here”, how and when a particular emerging morphology is to be injected into an emerging design, and what actions must be taken to make the appearance succeed geometrically. Thus an unfolding is a hugely different thing from a pattern, and a most important step forward.
In addition, the unfolding (as the very word itself suggests) unfolds the currently existing whole — eg. a building in its environment, a neighborhood in a city. It is focused on the whole at all times, and shows how this whole unfolds, to give birth to new form and new differentiations. This explicit reference to the whole and its unfolding, provides us with a new conception of architecture as that which is being born from the pre-existing whole, and continuing it, thus always helping to give continuity to the city and the earth.
The concept of an unfolding provides an entirely different vision of the nature of architecture and planning, one which is, in principle, at last capable of helping living structure to come into being.

2. Unlike a pattern, an unfolding arises from the particular whole in which it is forming. It is shaped by the whole, and acts upon the whole, and causes the rebirth of the whole.

 2.1 An unfolding, is a glimpse of wholeness, a small microcosm of “the” whole, the whole seen within a small portion of the universe, the world in a grain of sand.
2.2 Imagine the universe as a fountain. It is composed of quarks, electrons, fields, light, and motion. But all this apparatus — the apparatus shown to us by modern physics — has one purpose only. It is as if the purpose of this apparatus, were to create a fountain, which can give forth unending novelty and harmony. It isa fountain in which the drops may be whole worlds or galaxies; and in which the supply of newness that comes from this fountain, is dazzling and inexhaustible.
And the newness comes forth from unfolding. This means, literally, that what comes forth, is always, and continuously, coming from what is there already. In fact, it depends on what is there already to suggest its form.
You know how flake pastry is made. You roll it, and then fold it; roll it and then fold it. What comes out is always the same and always different. That is what this fountain of plenty does.
2.3 Consider a simple unfolding: the process by which house fronts are to be placed in such a way as to create positive space between them. This is not merely an arrangement of house fronts, nor an arrangement of houses. It is a kind of stirring of space, in which house fronts are to be imagined, and placed, in such a way that beautiful space is formed between them. This stirring of space, animates space — creates feeling there. It cannot be imagined by placing prefabricated objects.
2.4 It used to be thought that an electron was a very small object, moving around the atomic nucleus. But the insight of quantum mechanics says something different. In order to see what sort of thing is going on, we have to imagine that the electron is a waveform, extending in the vicinity of the nucleus as a kind of cloud that is, say, the size of an apple. It is a shadowy entity, interpenetrating others, but large, ghostly, and present (as far as atomic dimensions are concerned) everywhere. When we recognize that a small dust particle contains millions of atoms, and millions of electrons — and we begin to see that each one of all these millions is the size of an apple — we begin to see what a hugely different picture this gives us of reality.
Each unfolding is like the apple-size electron. It reaches out, and it is part of the greater whole. It is not a fragment, like a matchbox. It embraces a considerable part of the world beyond itself. It embraces reality, and is reality.
2.5 Consider a relatively simple pattern, like Light on Two Sides of Every Room. This pattern, appears as #159 in A Pattern Language. The problem is stated as follows:
When they have a choice, people will always gravitate to those rooms which have light on two sides, and leave the rooms which are lit only from one side unused and empty.

The solution is then given as follows:

Locate each room so that it has outdoor space outside it on at least two sides, and then place windows in these outdoor walls so that natural light falls into every room from more than one direction.
This pattern gives us powerful insight about one of the conditions that makes a room pleasant. But it is still abstract, and it is up to us to make use of it, by holding it up as a target of some design process.
What does it mean to say that it is “abstract”? It focuses attention on the end state that is desired: but it does not tell us how to get there. Indeed, producing this pattern in a building, is quite difficult, because it will only come about by some decisions having to do with the volume of the building, by making sure that the building has, at least in some degree, wings of light which are narrow and not too thick, and placing of rooms on the corners of these wings. There is no one moment in the unfolding of the design, in your mind, or on paper, when you can undertake all these acts together — so it is difficult to visualize the action as a real process. It does not fit, in a commonsense way, into the real time when you are making these decisions.
So, you understand what is desired, but you do not have a concrete, and practical picture of how to get there.
2.6 Now imagine an unfolding which tells us that in an important room, we must begin to reshape the exterior walls of the room, its position in the house, the container like quality that is created by the windows bringing light from both sides to the place where we are standing.
First, this unfolding is plainly dynamic, it tells us to do something. It does not merely give us something as a target. This reflects the dynamic quality of every unfolding. But it also mobilizes our emotional energy and emotional engagement, in an entirely different way. If we imagine standing in the place, and are then (in our minds) made comfortable by the sun shining in on us, by the beauty of the light, at the same time coming from another direction, this tells us in a new way — in an entirely new way — the emotional impact which this unfolding has, and ought to have on our actions, and on our results.
The final result of this engagement is that the room, its exterior, its interior, its windows, the relative placement of the windows as they stand around us — all these are mobilized, and the whole, THE WHOLE, is now being transformed and modified in a profound kind act of awakening.
The pattern gives us very useful information. But the unfolding ignites a new sensation that is much deeper than mere information, and that has a much deeper effect on the building which is being formed, and on the mentality and feeling of those who are doing it.
Unfoldings, which are dynamic in nature embrace feeling, and show us the world unfolding and becoming, through the advent of feeling.

3. An unfolding is by its nature personal, and requires human input and human feeling from the people doing the work, as an essential part of its contribution to the formation of the environment.

3.1 Unfoldings are written in common language. They describe what happens as one moves around in space, sees, feels, and takes an action. They involve the feeling and participation of the doer, so that a person acting to undertake an unfolding, is fully engaged, can visualize both the feeling, and the necessity, and then the simplicity of the thing that is taking place, and the simple, but beautiful field which then takes form before our eyes.
I believe these unfoldings, for this reason, come finally, very much closer to the framework of engagement with people which first set me on this architectural path, almost fifty years ago. I believe that at last, I may have found a way — the simplest of all — of engaging people’s feelings — all people’s feelings — in the process of building, in such a way as to undo the results of mechanical, and mechanical-mental oppression — which we have all suffered, through nobody’s fault, during this last age of the two hundred years from 1800 to 2000.

The Most Important Entities

By Christopher Alexander. Original post here.

Use the following list of “entities” as a model for making your own first rudimentary list for the neighborhood — just to get started. Once again, the exotic nature of this list is intended to encourage you to allow free reign to your imagination at this early stage.
A vivid example,
originally written for
Samarkand city center,
Uzbekistan, 1994
This was the second list I wrote for the project. After trying to understand the system of patterns as a whole, and as we worked on it, the list was then transformed as a whole to modify the global feeling and content of what this place was going to be — as it matured in our under­standing. We kept on thinking of the whole way of life which would be created by these patterns, and then changed the patterns, intensified them, improved them, made the centers more explicit, as our understanding of this whole increased. We kept on working at it until the living whole revealed itself, as fully as we could manage, in the list of centers. After much more work, the list — or pattern language — for the project ended up with the following centers: Note, the earlier statements are written in the active form, in italics, which sketches the content of each possible center. The second, longer list which follows is given in small capital letters, to indicate that by this stage the ideas had materialized and solidified ascenters— as potentially solid objects which were reliable and recognizable as entities.
the main bridge
the forbidden city
massive surrounding wall
the festival promenade
view to registan
the observatory
the orchard of peach trees
main terrace
 outdoor theater
craft school and bazaar
 the inner city
small hotels
walled path
music school
inner city gate
five small walled gardens
chaikhanas
main street from the registan
fountains and streams
exhibition hall
covered bazaar
the library
the manuscript museum
arched bridge
soccer and games
wall of arches
gates in the outer wall
the hospice or kulliye
inner part of the forbidden city
blue-tiled walks
the mosque
The above photograph shows the model we made for the project, on the basis of this pattern language.
This example gives an idea of the vital role which generic centers can play in creating a whole. In this example these centers, the list alone, creates an almost magical atmosphere. As soon as we name them, just from naming them, we begin to feel the aura of the place. The patterns are evoca­tive. It doesn’t even matter in what order we take the centers. The mere list, itself, already conveys a profound atmosphere, and defines, in great de­gree the atmosphere of the place which will be made up of these centers. It creates the atmo­sphere right away. It is these centers which play the defining role. In Book 3, chapter 4, I show a drawing I made with my apprentices to show the physical character of this system of centers when they are realized.
SUMMARY OF TASKS FOR THIS UNFOLDING:
  • Compose a list of key entities (like the above list for Samarkand) for your own new, imagined neighborhood. Allow yourself free reign, free imagination, and make it poetically whole. Choose the entities so that the group of entities, taken as a whole, successfully capture the spirit of the very best, and most serious that this new neighborhood can be.
  • If possible, pin the list of entities you have written, on the wall where partners and colleagues can see it. Listen to what they say.

Monday, March 23, 2015

TRADITION AND COMFORT

By Christopher Alexander. Original post here.

Each family, sometimes each street or city block, each neighborhood, each region, each culture, each nation, each island, each climatic zone, each ecological region, has its own specific traditions. Above a Guatemalan kind of house painting. Below, a Mariachi band in Mexico.
Some of these traditions are of a practical nature; other are historical or sentimental; some are caused by local plants and materials; others by a particular pattern of rainfall; others are simply based on “the way” that things are done.
In order to make a generative code fit a particular place or culture, it is wise to introduce specific patterns in the following categories:
  • family types
  • acceptable density
  • size of rooms
  • typical type of entrance
  • typical type of rooms for gathering
  • position of windows
  • roof shape
  • nearby materials and local materials

NEW UNFOLDINGS FOR THE GENERATIVE CODE
Once you have identified the patterns which make people comfortable, in these aspects of their neighborhoods and buildings, it will not be too difficult to translate each pattern, into an unfolding: that is, into an action which occurs at a specific time in the overall sequence of layout processes, that will assure the introduction of the necessary pattern into that environment.
If you follow these rules, it will give the place you are making, an altogether different and more personal character.
SUMMARY OF TASKS FOR THIS UNFOLDING:
  • Follow the rules written down above, exactly as they are written

Sunday, March 22, 2015

GENERATIVE CODES HAVE EVOLVED FROM PATTERN LANGUAGES, BUT ARE MUCH MORE SOPHISTICATED GENERATING SYSTEMS

By Christopher Alexander. Original post here.

A generative code is a system of unfolding steps that enable people in a community to create a wholesome and healthy neighborhood. The steps are governed by rules of unfolding that are not rigid, but depend on context, and on what came before. The rules work in a way that is similar to the rules that nature follows to unfold an organism or a natural landscape, much as genetic codes unfold embryos. But these rules unfold a neighborhood and its buildings from the whole, and lead to a unique result for each particular place.The rules tell you how to take specific steps, in a certain way that allows unfolding to proceed.
  • Like patterns (identified in A Pattern Language, 1975), the rules cover a great range of scales — all of the major features of the neighborhood, down to the finer details, including open spaces, buildings, connecting paths, rooms, window sills, etc.
  • The rules are ordered – sequenced – to unfold each part of the environment being created, smoothly and coherently.
  • Also, in the generative code, each rule is specifically tied to a certain group of individuals, whose job it is to undertake that part of the unfolding together.
  • Finally, in order to make the process succeed, the overall operation of the unfolding, which goes forward step by step, is accompanied by a general set of practical specifications for the conditions governing land tenure, cash flow, and human organization, and the community in which the process is being carried out.
When a generative code is used, the order in which things are done plays a decisive role in proper execution of the unfolding process.

For example:
  • Diagnosis of the site is an essential early step.
  • Roads and driveways must be located and built after the pedestrian structure, not before.
  • Roads must be located and built after the houses, not before.
  • Sewers must be located and laid after public space is created, not before.
  • When houses are designed, the garden must be placed (located) before the house volume is located, not after.
  • Construction work must begin long before final drawings are ready, and the drawings develop, in parallel with the construction process.
  • Windows must be placed, designed, and measured and built, after the walls or wall framing has begun, so that they reflect the real situations in the room, its light, and view.
  • According to contract, changes of design which have no effect on quantity of units built, must not be viewed as change orders, but as part of the builders obligation, provided they stay within parameters of quantity and price.
In an unfolding sequence, these things occur in this unusual order, not in the order we might expect from conventional contemporary building methods. This is because each activity is unfolding from the wholeness of the place. The changes of sequence are not whimsical, but necessary, to make sure that each thing can be adapted to the whole, in a successful fashion. They are necessary, in order to allow a coherent unfolding, of the neighborhood, where the right things come first, and the lesser ones take their place in the context provided by the major things. The “right” things, are the ones which have the biggest impact on the environment from a human and emotional point of view, which is capable of making people healthy because their deepest feelings are respected.


FOOTNOTE
In order to see the contrast, here is the order in which these things were usually done in conventional 20th-century development work, many of them specified in existing city codes. In current practice, there are many conventions of sequence, which have become part of the accepted wisdom, in planning, architecture, and development.
The following examples are all harmful:
  • Conventionally: Roads are built before the buildings they serve.
  • Conventionally: In a tract development, street sewers are laid long before the houses are built.
  • Conventionally: Houses are placed, and the garden is whatever is left on the lot, comes second.
  • Conventionally: Windows are designed and positioned at the time the building’s plans are submitted for plan check.
  • Conventionally: Drawings are completed before any construction work is done.
  • Conventionally: Neighborhood plans are completed, before any construction work is done.
  • Conventionally: Public spaces are designed after individual buildings.
  • Conventionally: Changes are done by change orders, and therefore become very expensive.
These practices do not support the creation of living neighborhoods.

Pannekaker til søndagsfrokost

I dag ble det pannekaker til frokost, etter sterk oppfordring fra storesøster. Pannekakene var særdeles gode, laget med sammalt hvete og noen ekstra egg i anledning søndagen.

Selv klarer jeg ikke å lage pannekaker, så jeg må si meg imponert av hva jentene mine får til.

Se større oppløsning her.

Jeg må nå også legge til at dette ble søndagen (22. mars 2015) da storesøster falt ned trappa. Kanskje hadde hun spist for mye pannekaker? Men falt blir litt feil å si, hun heller rullet og spratt. Jeg satt nede og forberedte oss til søndagsturen, da jeg hørte et bulder og brak, og da jeg hevet hodet så jeg henne komme rullende. Seansen minnet mest av alt om da Snorkfrøken falt ned fjellet i "Snorkfrøken blir ei prinsesse".

Heldigvis har jenta kraftig beinbygning og består av rein muskelmasse, så hun kom fra det hele med skrekken. Vi har heller ikke merket noen prinsessenykker utover det vanlige.

Bevar Kvernum for kvernene

Publisert i Oppland Arbeiderblad tirsdag 10. mars 2015.

Da jeg forleden var innom biblioteket tok jeg en titt på Totens Blad, før jeg hastet videre til svømmehallen. Det var så vidt jeg fikk med meg at et lokalt eiendomsselskap og et arkitektfirma hadde planer om leilighetsbygg på den gamle Kvernumstomta på Skreia.

Større oppløsning her

Mens jeg tok badstue og svømte forholdsvis bedagelig, begynte hodet å kverne på dette. Først tenkte jeg at det da var ille at dette stedet skulle lide en slik skjebne, nok et offer for modernismen og markedskreftene, formet av stats/markeds-duopolet. Som lesere av Permaliv vet så inderlig vel, det er kun allmenningheten som vet å skape levende og vibrerende nabolag.

For øvrig er modernismen nå inne i en ny syklus av minimalistisk Bauhaus-arkitektur, hvor man gjerne har byttet ut den kvite betongen med naturmaterialer, så skal liksom alt være bra. Men nei, de har fremdeles den samme angsten for ornament, mønstre og tradisjonsbundne formspråk. Så vi vet hva vi har i vente på Kvernumstomta, en neglisjering av menneskets biologiske og åndelige natur.

Tankene kvernet videre, og jeg begynte å tenke på opphavet til navnet Kvernum, for på folkemunne sier vi da vitterlig Kvennom, hvilket vil si kvernene. Man sa nok til daglig; "je stikk en tur borti kvennom", og med tida ble stedet hetende Kvennom, eller Kvernum, som man så fint skriver det.

Vi har her kverner i flertall, hvilket vil si at kvernene stod tett i strykene forbi Kvernum. Det var her Skreia ble født. Tenk hvilket liv det var her, med møller og oppgangssager langsetter elva.

Kanskje en av mine forfedre arbeidet her og tok navnet fra en av møllene, da jeg egentlig skulle ha hett Fossemøllen. Det var min oldefar som i sin tid tok navnet Holmstad da han giftet seg med ei fra Holmstad gård, fordi hun mente hun fikk så lite i medgift at hun i alle fall ville beholde navnet.

Tankene fortsatte å kverne, og det ble klart for meg at vi kan da ikke fylle opp denne viktige tomta med oppbevaringsbokser for mennesker, som man så frekt kaller for boliger, ja til og med hjem.

Kvernumstomta må bevares for en gjenreising av kvernene! For de som ikke holder seg for ørene og synger la, la, la, og later som alt er bra, er det klart at vår industrielle sivilisasjon synger på de siste versene. Terje Bongard konstaterer dette ut fra menneskeatferd og sin kjennskap til økosystemtjenestene, Gail Tverberg ut fra sine dypdykk i statistikk og tallknusing. Allerede om 20 år kan festen være forbi for all tid.

Derfor bør Kvernumstomta bevares med formål å gjenopprette småindustri basert på direkte vannkraft. Å kverne korn, sage plank, spinne garn, det er tungt arbeid. Vi må opprettholde fri tilgang til Kvernumsstrykene og tilliggende områder. De industrihallene som er der nå kan stå, de er av en slik art at de vil komme godt med. Men ytterligere utbygging bør ikke tillates. Med mindre det gjelder å gjenoppbygge kvernene.

Slik kan Kvennom igjen bære sitt navn med rette, stedet der "kvennom" ligger langsetter Lenaelva. Hvor kvernenes sang er sangen om mat i magen og hus og klær til å holde varmen. 

Eller vil våre etterkommere omdøpe stedet til Blokkom, stedet der alle blokkene ligger? Skal vi la dette skje i profittens kortsiktige navn? Eller skal vi tenke litt mer på våre barns velferd?

Allerede i 2035, om 20 år, vil vi være i desperat behov for energi. Da vil vi være takknemlige hvis vi bevarer Kvernums-tomta for framtidig småindustri, basert på direkte vannkraft.

La oss legge til rette for kvernenes sang etter Kvernumsstrykene.

Om 20 år betyr kvernenes sang brød, materialer, og spinnerier. Å legge hindringer i vegen for kvernene kan bety forskjellen på liv og død, for oss selv og våre barn.

What is Shared is Loved

IF ONE THING, MORE THAN ANY OTHER, distinguishes a real neighborhood from the corporate machine-architecture of the 20th-century developer, it is the fact that real people have — together — conceived it, planned it, and built it. It is this human reality which makes it worth living in, pleasant to be there, and valuable. - Christopher Alexander
I do so often hear the claim that people care most about what they own. That's a myth. As everything is interwoven, only a shared creation can be loved. For example it's not possible for me to love my house, because it was not a shared creation and it is not part of a shared creation.

Not shared - not loved

The Western view of property was created out of the destruction of the Native North Americans, using the philosophy of John Locke for all its worth. Well, Locke was actually arguing for the property rights of the nobility, but the settlers adapted his teaching for justifying their takeover of Indian land.

What the settlers did was that they destroyed the beautiful commons of the Native Americans, replacing it with a Cartesian hell of property rights. This is also the reason why Garrett Hardin's essay "The Tragedy of the Commons" found such a fertile soil in the Western mind, and became like our civilization's parallel to Christ's "Sermon on the Mount".

Read more about this in David Bollier's essay: The Fateful Choice: The Pilgrims Assign Private Property Rights in Land.

The sad truth is that with this atomized worldview, where everybody does their own thing on their sacred property lot; in the end everything will be destroyed. And this way we lose the goal with our lives, the meaning of our existence. And we commit a terrible sin to the Earth.

Read more about this in my essay: Let's Make Our World Whole.

In the world today we only find a few places created out of shared value. One of these is Damanhur in Italy. I hope to someday bring my family there for a period, to experience how our insane world of property could have been like if it was shared. If Me were We!

But even our world is no longer shared, but owned, the commons has again set new sprouts in these darkest of times.

Our societies have become a nightmare of disconnected parts, where we hate our lives and hate each other. As I just read in a Norwegian newspaper, never before have Norwegians quarreled more in the courts, and newer have there been more lawyers in Norway than today. To be sure, our Locean/Cartesian society has become a paradise for the lawyers. When the commons is destroyed, the lawyers become fat.

It's time to make a change! Let's wreck John Locke and replace him with Ellinor Ostrom. Let's learn from the commons the settlers destroyed. What is strange to think about, the settlers did not just destroy the USA; with their achievements they also destroyed my own country, Norway, which is now nothing but a slum of modernity.

To get inspiration for our fight, in spite of that everything is destroyed, read the essay by Mehaffy & Salingaros:

Saturday, March 21, 2015

Become a Wildernist and Join the Winning Team!

Thanks! A very good analogy. As I've not seen it before I guess you came up with it yourselves.

For me I've since your last post joined the wildernists. As there's no hope to save industrial civilization, it's better to make the best of it. To turn doomsday into salvation.

Also, when joining the wildernists you are on the winning party. And who doesn't want to be a winner?

Here are our principles:

http://www.thewildernist.org/blogs/hg/2015/03/statement-of-principles/

Tillitsfulle folk har annerledes hjerne

Selv har jeg en lei tendens til å tro at andre vil meg vel, og har alltid hatt en naiv og godtroende tilnærming til andre mennesker. Jeg ser nå at dette skyldes en hjernefeil, og at jeg lider av altfor mye grå hjernemasse og en forstørret amygdala. Derfor må jeg nok bare innse at jeg ikke har mulighet til å forstå de som ikke ønsker sine medmennesker vel.

En løsning kan være at vi scanner hjernen til hele befolkningen, for deretter å dele oss i to, hvor de tillitsfulle lever i egne samfunn, og de mistroiske i andre. Da ville vi alle fått det så meget bedre! De mistroiske ville hele tiden fått bekreftet sin oppfatning om at verden vil dem ondt, og de tillitsfulle kunne fylle livet med å glede hverandre.

Damanhur i Italia er et slikt sted, en frihavn for de tillitsfulle.

Les mer hos forskning.no.

Tillitsfulle folk har annerledes hjerne

Den ventromediale prefrontale cortexen (gult område) er større hos mennesker som stoler på andre enn hos de mer mistenksomme. (Illustrasjon: Brian Haas, University of Georgia)

Thursday, March 19, 2015

Villbringebærpai (Wild Raspberry Pie)

Vi spiste bringebærpai for første gang i går, og ble alle overrasket over hvor godt det smakte, faktisk like godt som blåbærpai